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Asthma

January 02 2017 at 08:37 PM by Admin


 

Asthma is a common respiratory disease which occurs periodically mostly during rairly season or during winter time. There occurs difficulty in breathing, weezing & feeling of tightness in chest. It is all due to bronchial  tube contraction . In addition, there occures sputum production  which may be coughed up or remain sticky to the bronchial pipe to give a feeling of congestion in the chest.

It occurs one in 10 children & one in 20 adults in the world population. There is tendency that it runs in a family. Asthma once established can’t be cured but it can be controlled. It can also be prevented.

Types of Asthma:

There are three types of Asthma.

Extrinsic Asthma – It is known as allergic Asthma begins in childhood or in young adult.

Intrinsic Asthma – It is also otherwise known as idiosyncracy where the cause is not known. Often begins whwn patient is over 40 years.

Secondary Asthma – It can develop at any age. any condition irritate the bronchi may cause this like viral infection in children & chronic bronchitis in adults.

Occupational Asthma Over 200 agents used in commerce cause asthma in workers exposed to them. These may be grain dust, Insect dander, flour, wood dust & other metalic dusts in factories.

Causes of Asthma:

The common cold or flu will usually make asthma worse and this can last for up to six weeeks unless increased treatment is given. Asthma attacks are often set off by allergens. The common things to which asthmatics are allergic are grass pollen, house dust & animal fur, different food factors like egg, prawn, sea fish. About one in fifty people with asthma are allergic to aspirin. Over 80% of the patients are sensitive to dust allergens, 70% to pollens, 40% animal danders, about 50% are allergic to aspirin drug.

Exercise, particularly running in cold weather, can cause asthma attack but with correct treatment exercise induced asthma can b well controlled. Asthmatics shouldn’t avoid sport & exercise since overall they are beneficial. Irritants like tobacco smoke, fumes & a dusty atmosphere will often lead to asthma attacks. Emotion( Anger, Anxiety or happiness) can bring on an attack of wheezing in some asthmatics.

Attacks of asthma sometimes follow exposure to an allergen, but often occurs at night or are precipitated by exercise, excitement or infection. Dyspnoea, cough, wheezing are usually present. The patient can breath in easier than he can breath out. This is what causes wheezing.

Treatment:

With right treatment in the beginning asthma may be cured & asthmatics may be cured & asthmatics may lead a normal life. Treatments are available in various forms according to intensity of disease.

  1.  If it is status asthmaticus(sudden & life threatening) may be treated with i.v. injection of deriphylline or cortisone preparation. Then it is followed by broncho dilator drugs like asthalin, broncotab & deriphylline tablets. They sometimes required oxygen during acute attack.
  2. With low intensity inhalers give relief of the symptoms. cough syrup may be benefited to the patient codein in it.
  3. Preventive – the chronic asthmatic may use inhalers regularly to prevent asthmatics attacks. Such inhalers are Rotahalers, Accuhalers & Neubulisers.
  4. With acute attack which is initiated with infection may be treated with antibiotics in addition to broncho dilator drugs.

Prevention:

Prevention is better than cure. Asthmatics better know under what circumstances they get the attack. So they should be careful for this.

  1. They should restrict to such type of atmosphere as well as food allergens.
  2. People can use mask while moving in streets & dusty atmosphere.
  3.  Prevention should be careful for emotional disturbances. They should keep calm as far as possible.
  4.  Asthmatics should avoid smkoing and perfumes.
  5. They should have balance diet & avoid  emotional strees & unnecessary fatigue.
  6. Infection of ear, nose & throat should be checked if there is infection & may be treated.

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